11 Oct The Trips Agreement Requires Nations To
In addition, Article 65(5) of the TRIPS Agreement provides that countries benefiting from the transitional period should not leave members that benefit from a transitional period (in accordance with Article 65(1), (2), (3) or (4)), in order to ensure that changes in their laws, rules and practices during the transitional period do not result in less compliance with the provisions of the Agreement. . all categories of intellectual property that are the subject of Sections 1 to 7 of Part II of the Agreement (Article 1.2). These include copyright and related rights, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, patents, layout designs for integrated circuits and the protection of undisclosed information. Since the entry into force of TRIPS, it has been the subject of criticism from developing countries, scientists and non-governmental organizations. World Bank statements indicate that TRIPS has not been able to tangibly accelerate investment in low-income countries, although this has been done for middle-income countries.  The long periods of validity of patents under TRIPS have been examined to indicate that they excessively slow down market entry for generic drug substitutes and competition in the market. In particular, the illegality of preclinical studies or the filing of samples for approval until a patent expires has been held responsible for the growth of a few multinationals and not producers in developing countries.